Clifford Berryman Cartoon Collection, 1900-1948

Clifford Berryman Cartoon Collection, 1900-1948

Finding Aid

Collection No. P8 (108 Cartoons)
D.C. Community Archives

The entire Berryman collection has been digitized and is available on Dig DC

Scope and Content Note

The Clifford Berryman Cartoon Collection contains 108 political cartoons drawn for publication in the Washington Evening Star from approximately 1900 to 1948.  Drawn in pen and ink on poster board, the majority of these oversized cartoons measure either 13.5” x 14.25” or 18” x 15.75”. 

In general, the subjects of the cartoons pertain to local District of Columbia issues as opposed to national news. The cartoons address community issues, congressional appropriation and District finances, holidays and events, politics, District political representation, weather and nature, and World Wars I and II.  The collection also contains a handful of miscellaneous Berryman drawings, cards, and caricatures. A brief description of each cartoon is provided with the box inventory at the end of the finding aid.
 
Recurring characters in Berryman’s cartoons include:

  1. “D.C.,” a character resembling Benjamin Franklin who represents the people of the District of Columbia;
  2. Uncle Sam, representing the country as a whole;
  3. the Berryman bear, a small, furry bear cub figure that appears with either President Theodore Roosevelt or Uncle Sam, usually to depict an emotional response to the situation occurring in the cartoon, or to stand for Berryman’s own views on the matter; and
  4. the Squash Center farmers, a group of men that provide various comments and opinions on news.

Biographical Information

Clifford Kennedy Berryman was an editorial cartoonist at the Washington Evening Star.  He was born in Versailles, Kentucky,[1] on April 2, 1867 to James T. and Sallie C. Berryman, the tenth of 11 children. The family was descended from English and Scottish immigrants to Virginia before 1726. 

Berryman attended Professor Henry’s School for Boys in Versailles and graduated in 1886.  He never attended art school and was entirely self-taught in the art of cartooning. His natural talent may have been inherited from his father, a planter and merchant, who would often draw sketches of the family’s neighbors. 
 
When he was 13, Berryman drew a sketch of his idol, Rep. (later Sen.) C. S. Blackburn of Kentucky. Several years later, Blackburn happened to see the drawing displayed in Berryman’s uncle’s office, and he was so impressed that he sponsored the young man to come to Washington, procuring him a job as a draftsman at the United States Patent Office.  Berryman arrived in D.C. in 1886 and put his talents to use on the job, where he added freehand drawings to illustrate and clarify the pictures accompanying applications for patents. 

From 1891 to 1896, he also worked as a general illustrator. During this time, he learned how to draw political cartoons by studying contemporary cartoons in Punch and Puck and copying the cartoonists’ styles. Throughout his career, Berryman worked solely in the medium of pen and ink. 

On July 5, 1893, Berryman married Kate G. Durfee, a D.C. schoolteacher. The couple had three children, two of whom survived infancy. Later, his son James followed in his footsteps, joining him as a staff cartoonist at the Star, while his daughter Florence became the Star’s art critic. 
 
Berryman sold his first series of drawings to the Washington Post in 1889 for $25, which was nearly his whole month’s salary at the Patent Office. In 1896, he joined the Post staff full-time as a political cartoonist, acting as understudy to editorial cartoonist George Y. Coffin. However, Coffin died less than a year later, leaving Berryman to inherit the position. He quickly honed his craft, drawing cartoons with direct, clear messages and caricatures that captured individuals’ likenesses and personalities. 

On Feb. 1, 1907, Berryman moved to the Evening Star, where as chief cartoonist he drew a cartoon every day until 1935, when he underwent a serious operation and subsequently reduced his workload from seven to three cartoons a week. Berryman won a Pulitzer Prize in 1944 for his Aug. 28, 1943 cartoon entitled “But Where is the Boat Going?,” which criticized unorganized manpower mobilization efforts during World War II. He also illustrated nearly 40 books during his career, and was the first cartoonist to be accepted into the Gridiron Club.
 
Berryman’s most famous creation was the “Berryman Bear,” a small, fuzzy bear cub that was the inspiration for the toy teddy bear.  He first drew the bear in a Washington Post cartoon, inspired by an incident in which President Theodore Roosevelt refused to shoot a defenseless bear cub at the end of an otherwise fruitless bear hunt. The story became a legend and secured Roosevelt a reputation for fair play and compassion. Berryman depicted the event in a cartoon entitled “Drawing the Line in Mississippi” (Nov. 21, 1902) and the public instantly embraced his depiction of the little bear and clamored for further appearances.

Thereafter, whenever Berryman drew Roosevelt, the bear also appeared; after Roosevelt left office, the bear became the companion of Uncle Sam, representing the entire country. The popularity of the Berryman Bear led toy manufacturers to produce the first teddy bear stuffed animals for children, which became the most popular toy in the country.  Berryman did not seek any commercial profit from the adaptation of his creation, and was reportedly simply grateful for the happiness it brought to children.
 
Berryman’s remarkably long career spanned the tenures of presidents Benjamin Harrison to Harry S. Truman. In his capacity as a prominent Washington cartoonist, Berryman became very well known in political circles and cultivated friendships with many politicians. He received letters of appreciation from every president from Theodore Roosevelt, who complimented him on his “real artist’s ability to combine great cleverness and keen thoughtfulness with entire freedom from malice,” to Truman. Berryman is recalled as a genuinely kind and generous person, who was able to satirize and criticize in a gentle way that was often more effective in affecting the public figures depicted in his cartoons. It is said that no subject ever complained of unfair treatment, and many were actually flattered enough just to appear in a Berryman cartoon that they asked for the original. Berryman never commercialized his art and frequently gave away originals to anyone who wanted them.
 
Berryman collapsed on his way to work at the Star on Nov. 17, 1949, and died less than a month later on Dec. 11, 1949. He was 80 years old and had been a cartoonist for 53 years.  

Provenance

Clifford Berryman’s daughter, Florence Berryman, most likely donated the cartoons sometime after his death, possibly in the early 1950s. However, the file on this collection does not document the details of this accession.

Related Materials

At the D.C. Community Archives:

  • Biography vertical file: Berryman, Clifford K.
  • Washington Evening Star photo collection
  • Washington Evening Star clipping file
  • Washington Evening Star Papers

Outside the D.C. Community Archives:
Unfortunately, the bulk of Berryman’s cartoons and personal papers are scattered throughout many different repositories. This is in part due to the massive number of cartoons as well as Berryman’s willingness to give away his originals to whoever asked first. His work reportedly is held in collections at:

  • Library of Congress (personal manuscript collection and bulk of cartoons)
  • National Archives and Records Administration: Senate papers
  • George Washington University
  • American University
  • University of Texas: John N. Garner Cartoons (approx. 150 cartoons)
  • College of Idaho: Senator William E. Borah collection (approx. 100 cartoons)
  • British Museum
  • Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt Library
  • University of Missouri
  • New York Public Library
  • Folger Shakespeare Library
  • United States Supreme Court
  • National Press Club in Washington, D.C.
  • Tudor Place Historic House and Gardens

Processing Procedures

Processing procedures consisted of analyzing the images, sorting them into series according to subject, describing them, performing research to verify dates, and constructing Mylar sleeves. Each cartoon is described by:

  1. a unique ID assigned by the archives, representing its series and its position within the series, on the top right corner of each cartoon;
  2. an original number, which usually appears on the back lower left corner;
  3. a date, either from the cartoon itself, discovered through research, or an approximated circa date;
  4. a caption if given or discovered; and
  5. a brief description of the content of the cartoon in terms of characters, dialogue, and topics.  

Although the collection is not well documented, there is evidence of some prior archival work. Almost every cartoon is labeled in pencil with a unique number in the back lower left corner, and dates have been written in pencil on the front under Berryman’s signature. It is unknown who added this information, and whether the original numbering system had any meaning; the processing archivist was unable to determine any pattern to the numbers. These “original numbers” are not believed to be from either Berryman or the Star staff, and were probably added around the time the cartoons were received by the archives. 

Likewise, it is unknown how the dates provided (usually circa dates or date spans) were chosen. Some seem to be very vague guesses, and a few of the specific ones have been determined to be wrong. It is possible that the writer had knowledge of Berryman’s evolving style and thus could approximate dates for some cartoons. However, again, the processing archivist was unable to determine this for sure. 
 
Within each series, the cartoons are arranged chronologically with undated ones at the end of the series according to original number. The processing archivist tried to determine publication dates for cartoons whenever this was possible, based on the cartoon’s subject and content. 

Dates appearing in [square brackets] are supplied by the processing archivist; those appearing in {curly brackets} were originally penciled in by an unknown person and have not been verified. If a full date is given without brackets, Berryman wrote it on the cartoon himself. If a full date is given in [square brackets], it has been verified by locating the cartoon as actually published in the Star. Circa dates in [square brackets] designate a guess to the best of the archivist’s ability, and have been inserted into the chronological run with cartoons with verified dates. Cartoons possessing original, unverified dates in {curly brackets} have been treated as undated, and are interfiled with the undated cartoons according to original number at the end of each series. 
 
Captions sometimes appear on the cartoons in either pen or pencil. Those cartoons without a designated caption either were published without one, or the caption was not noted on the original cartoon. Descriptions of the cartoons were written by the processing archivist. Any other additional information and notes provided by the archivist appear in [square brackets]. Each cartoon was placed in a Mylar sleeve. 

Restrictions

There are no restrictions on viewing this collection. Reproductions should appear with the proper attribution indicating that the cartoon is housed in the Clifford Berryman Cartoon Collection. Citations should also indicate that the image appears “courtesy of Washingtoniana, DC Public Library.”

Series Descriptions

The collection is arranged into the following series:

Series 1: Community Issues, 21 cartoons (1900-1946)    

Cartoons in this series relate specifically to issues affecting residents of the District. Concerns include crowded schools, high rent, litter, noise and pollution. A few cartoons address the growing population in D.C. Others deal with sports and recreation. Berryman also exercised his editorial role by drawing cartoons that served as public service announcements, such as ones encouraging participation in Community Chest campaigns, reminding citizens not to harm the dogwood trees, or calling for traffic safety and curfews.

Series 2: Congressional Appropriations and District Finances, 10 cartoons (1929-1940)    

Cartoons here deal with a broad array of District financial issues, including Congressional appropriations, budget, spending, taxes, and a general lack of funds. Also included are cartoons reminding citizens of approaching tax deadlines. Many of these cartoons have overtones of Berryman’s recurring theme of “taxation without representation” (see also Series 5: Representation).

Series 3: Holidays and Events, 15 cartoons (1908-1942)    

The bulk of the cartoons here show scenes relating to holidays such as Christmas and Easter. Others address important days such as Inauguration and Teacher Appreciation Day, or prominent events in the city such as conferences and meetings. While there is one cartoon in this series relating to the Fourth of July, many more about this holiday as well as Flag Day can be found in Series 5: Representation, because Berryman often used these events as an opportunity to criticize the District’s lack of representation.

Series 4: Politics, 13 cartoons (1909-1938)    

Cartoons in this series discuss political figures, events, and controversies in a general manner. This collection does not contain many cartoons that comment on national politics. However, since D.C. is the seat of government, there was always plenty of political news in the city, so there are number of drawings relating to the president and Congress generally. Most cartoons here deal with politics directly relating to the District government, such as ones commenting on the performance of the District commissioners, or the actions of Congressmen on the District committees.

Series 5: Representation, 22 cartoons (1929-1947)

These cartoons address the need for political representation for the District of Columbia. Berryman was a vocal proponent of full political rights for the District, and often lamented unfair conditions that required Washingtonians to pay taxes but denied them voting rights. The theme of “taxation without representation” appears frequently, often depicted as a ball-and-chain burden on his “D.C.” character. Berryman often used occasions of national holidays to comment on lack of representation; see also: Series 3: Holidays and Events. Here, the Fourth of July, Flag Day, Election Day, and the anniversary of the Boston Tea Party were days when Berryman called for representation for the District. Cartoons also comment on the political developments and progress in the campaign to gain representation.

Series 6: Weather and Nature, 16 cartoons, (1915-1917)    

These cartoons mainly comment on the weather in the District and the changing of the seasons. Berryman often laments the frigid winter, windy spring, and sweltering summer. One of his recurring characters here is a young girl depicting Spring, wearing a large hat covered in flowers. A few cartoons also relate problems of nature in the city, such as flies and starlings.

Series 7: World War I, 7 cartoons (1917-1919)    

Cartoons here depict issues affecting District residents during the first World War, such as fundraising campaigns for government bonds, food shortages, and the return of war heroes.

Series 8: World War II, 4 cartoons (1940-1945) 

This series contains a few cartoons specifically about World War II, which discuss the draft, war loans, and political conferences.

Series 9: Artwork, 24 items (1934-1948)

This series collects the handful of items in the collection that are not full-sized political cartoons from the Star. It contains Christmas cards, an invitation, a sketch, and printed caricatures, all drawn by Berryman.

Box Inventory

Series 1: Community Issues, 1900-1946

#1-1

Original number: 104
Date: [December 12, 1900]
Caption: Something to be proud of
Description: Uncle Sam doffs his hat to a female figure depicting Washington and holding the city shield and a bouquet of flowers. [This cartoon, which appeared in the Washington Post, commemorates the 100th anniversary of the District as the nation’s Capitol.]

#1-2

Original number: 97
Date: [July 8, 1909]
Caption: none
Description: An oversized man, gesturing at a clock that reads after midnight, begins to place a huge “Kimball Extinguisher” on top of a smaller figure who is playing a piano.

#1-3

Original number: 103
Date: [July 19, 1915]
Caption: Making a Record
Description: An oversized, proud “D.C.” grins and holds the newspaper baseball page with the headline, “Nationals win 4 games in 2 days!”

#1-4

Original number: 101 
Date: Sept. 20, 1915
Caption: The Problem
Description: “D.C.” gazes at the pupils spilling out of the doors of District schoolhouses, labeled with various signs denoting overcrowding.

#1-5

Original number: 76
Date: [June 10, 1925]
Caption: All dressed up and nowhere to go!
Description: “D.C.” is at the water’s edge dressed in his swimming outfit, but is upset to see a sign stating, “Tidal basin bathing beach closed by order of Congress.” 

#1-6

Original number: 81
Date: [Nov. 13, 1932]
Caption: none
Description: “D.C.” gestures to figures representing the sick and the poor, and states the monetary amounts needed for the Community Chest in 1933. A sign reads explains that Washington faces the "greatest need for service to humanity” ever in the year ahead.

#1-7

Original number: 69
Date: [July 8, 1946]
Caption: Washington Slept Here
Description: A scene of a park full of litter, with newspapers and empty bottles all over the ground.

#1-8

Original number: 24
Date: unknown
Caption: none
Description: Surrounded by discouraging news stories, “D.C.” reads that Walter Johnson promises the coming year will be his best ever. “D.C.” exclaims, “Ah ha! All is not gloom!”

#1-9

Original number: 41
Date: unknown
Caption: Another Glimpse of Beautiful Washington [in pencil]
Description: A visitor is stuck in a traffic jam, surrounded by various wagons and trucks carrying trash and pollutants. The landscape is also covered by garbage.

#1-10                                       

Original number: 45
Date: unknown
Caption: none
Description: A figure representing the Rent Commission sits on a fence before a raging bull labeled “Rent problems.” A rhyme in the corner reads: “There once was a young man who said, ‘How can I escape from this terrible cow? / I’ll sit on this stile / And continue to smile / Which may soften the heart of this cow.”

#1-11

Original number: 51
Date: {1920s}
Caption: none
Description: A man has just chopped off the entire top of a dogwood tree, and “D.C.” says, “Think of the thousands you are robbing!”  A sign in the background instructs, “Save the dogwood for others to enjoy.”

#1-12

Original number: 52
Date: unknown
Caption: none
Description: “D.C.” tries to climb over a wall labeled “Full Community Chest Quota” to the clamoring masses on the other side, but Thoughtlessness, Carelessness, and Selfishness are holding him back. He says, “It’s not a case of merely hoping! I’ve got to get over.”

#1-13

Original number: 54
Date: unknown
Caption: none
Description: “D.C.” stands in the street in front of several small children playing baseball, and holds a traffic sign reading “Look Out: Children at Play!”

#1-14

Original number: 55
Date: unknown
Caption: none
Description: A stern “D.C.” grabs the arm of a young man who is pulling branches off a dogwood tree, and points to a sign reading “Don’t Destroy the Dogwood.”

#1-15

Original number: 63
Date: unknown
Caption: none
Description: “D.C.” surveys a hungry crowd from the Community Chest podium, and comments, “Greater needs than ever!” 

#1-16

Original number: 77
Date: unknown
Caption: U.S. Census Bureau says Washington will have 528,000 population July 1
Description: A proud “D.C.” looks in the mirror, noting a sign on the floor stating the District is “now estimated to be number thirteen in the select fourteen class,” and says, “Number 13, eh? I should worry!”

#1-17

Original number: 79
Date: unknown
Caption: none
Description: “D.C.” pulls a Community Chest truck through the thick mud of Lack of Understanding and Lack of Sympathy, and says, “Lend a hand.  It mustn’t stop here!”

#1-18

Original number: 88
Date: {1916}
Caption: The Day
Description: Uncle Sam and the Berryman bear sprint out of an office, leaving a desk full of news stories and a sign on the chair stating, “Gone to the game.”

#1-19

Original number: 89
Date: {before 1910}
Caption: none
Description: “D.C.” leans against the White House gates next to a sign reading “Closed. No music here.” He watches the festivities in the distance and mutters, “Too far away.” 

#1-20

Original number: 94
Date: {1908?}
Caption: Needed – A Curfew Law
Description: At 10 p.m., “D.C.” stands on a downtown street next to the movie theater, surrounded by lots of children playing without any supervision.

#1-21

Original number: 102
Date: {before 1910}
Caption: none
Description: “D.C.” surveys a river with a waterfall, holding an announcement of power plant plans and saying, “It’s about time to put this water to work.”

Series 2: Congressional Appropriations and District Finances, 1920-1940

#2-1

Original number: 78
Date: [March 10, 1929]
Caption: none
Description: “D.C.” is caught up in interesting news stories, but Uncle Sam taps him on the shoulder and hands him a notice reading, “Don’t overlook your income tax return -- only 5 days left!”

#2-2

Original number: 23                
Date: March 27, 1940             
Caption: none
Description: Surrounded by notices of financial problems facing the District, “D.C.” yells into the phone, “I want to speak to Mrs. Roosevelt!”

#2-3

Original number: 1
Date: unknown
Caption: none
Description: A District taxpayer uses a magnifying glass to peer at a wall listing the many individuals who are exempt from local income taxes. He comments, “I don’t see my name on that list!”

#2-4

Original number: 14
Date: unknown
Caption: When a Feller needs a Friend!
Description: A bedraggled “D.C.” sits dejectedly on the curb while various politicians criticize and berate him.

#2-5

Original number: 16
Date: unknown
Caption: none
Description: Senator King says, “You’re spending too much!” “D.C.” is dressed in shrunken clothes and replies, “But it’s you that’re doing the spending for me!”

#2-6

Original number: 21
Date: unknown
Caption: The 400,000 city outgrows last year’s suit [in pencil]
Description: Uncle Sam reads about the commissioners’ District budget estimate, as “D.C.” stands before him in a shrunken suit holding notices about District financial needs.                              

#2-7

Original number: 57
Date: unknown
Caption: What’s this—the latest Strip-tease?
Description: Oversized hands representing taxes have stripped “D.C.” of most of his clothes and are tugging at his shirt. He yelps, “Leave me my shirt!”

#2-8

Original number: 67              
Date: {1920s?}                     
Caption: none
Description: The Berryman bear is outside the District tax collector’s office with a bullhorn warning the people pay their taxes on time and not get stung by penalties, as a sign states, “One more day to pay taxes.”

#2-9

Original number: 70
Date: unknown
Caption: none
Description: Uncle Sam holds “D.C.” upside down and shakes all the change out of his pockets while “D.C.” yelps, “Brother can you spare a dime?” The Berryman bear covers his face in shame. 

#2-10

Original number: 80
Date: unknown
Caption: Sure Signs of Spring!
Description: “D.C.” is assailed by gale forces winds consisting of new taxes and a new appropriations bill.         

Series 3: Holidays and Events, 1908-1942

#3-1

Original number: 107
Date: [Dec. 24, 1908]
Caption: Santa Claus Up to Date
Description: Santa Claus has loaded all his presents onto a bi-wing plane, and chuckles, “This beats the old way.”

#3-2

Original number: 39
Date: [July 5, 1909]
Caption: Safe and Sane
Description: At a Fourth of July celebration with a program of events including “Fireworks on the White Lot,” Uncle Sam asks “D.C.”, “Isn’t this better than going to the hospital?”

#3-3

Original number: 64
Date: [Dec. 5, 1934]
Caption:
Description: “D.C.” stands surrounded by mail packages and a sign reading “Shop Now, Mail Now.” He reminds people to affix a “Season’s Greeting 1934” stamp to their packages as well.

#3-4

Original number: 35
Date: May 14, 1942
Caption: none
Description: On Teacher’s Day, Uncle Sam hands a busy teacher a bouquet of appreciation and says, “While you are handing out cards, Miss Schoolteacher, remember I’ve got one for you.” 

#3-5

Original number: 36                
Date: {1915-1916}                 
Caption: none
Description: “D.C.” thinks of the guardsmen stationed at the border and holds a sign promoting a “fund to provide a Christmas tree for the boys on the border.”

#3-6

Original number: 37
Date: {before 1912?}
Caption: Day Before Easter Parade
Description: “D.C.” amusedly watches a line of shoppers struggle home under piles of brightly decorated packages.

#3-7

Original number: 44
Date: {c. 1916}
Caption: Dreaming [in pencil]
Description: A National Guardsman stationed on the border dreams of marching in a parade in D.C. on Inauguration Day.

#3-8

Original number: 46
Date: unknown
Caption: none
Description: “D.C.” is dressed as a Scout leader, and waves flags welcoming the Boy Scouts to the city.

#3-9

Original number: 60
Date: unknown
Caption: none
Description: “D.C.” holds a notice stating that Christmas stocks are ready early, and a postman instructs him to “Shop now! Mail now!”

#3-10

Original number: 65
Date: unknown
Caption: none
Description: In front of the Warner Bros, NBC, and P.T.A. buildings, Uncle Sam and “D.C.” shakes hands while “D.C.” holds a notice about the Star’s Christmas Drive, and a star overhead reminds readers to “Remember the forgotten child.”

#3-11

Original number: 74
Date: unknown
Caption: none
Description: “D.C.” is decked out in all his holiday clothes and laughs, “First chance I’ve had to doll up since Santy came.”

#3-12

Original number: 85
Date: {1914-1917}
Caption: At the Busy Counter [in pencil]
Description: A crowd of people carrying packages converge on a store gift exchange counter.

#3-13

Original number: 87
Date: {1914-1917}
Caption: Christmas Wishing [in pencil]
Description: Two young government clerks look at the display window of the “U.S. Gift Shop,” where Santa Claus is handing out salary increases, and say, “We may get in on that.” 

#3-14

Original number: 105
Date: {December 1915} [This is incorrect]
Caption: none
Description: An oversized “D.C.” stands among a crowd of people, buildings, and signs announcing various conferences and meetings, and holds a list of congresses convening in Washington this week.

#3-15

Original number: 106
Date: {1914-1917?}
Caption: none
Description: Surrounded by notices encouraging citizens to get their holiday shopping done early, “D.C.” imagines a crowd trying to squeeze into a subway car with all of their packages and decides he had better “hustle.”

Series 4: Politics, 1909-1938

#4-1

Original number: 98
Date: [Nov. 4, 1909]    
Caption: The Closed Season
Description: Emmeline Pankhurst, a radical suffragette, arrives in Washington to campaign for votes for women, only to find the city deserted and all the buildings closed. “D.C.” peers out from behind one of the buildings apprehensively.

#4-2

Original number: 95
Date: [c. 1912]
Caption: none
Description: Pinchot tried to give $600 to “D.C.” but is refused. Teddy Roosevelt peers around the corner holding a campaign fund cup and says, “Hi there, Giff! I can use that!”

#4-3

Original number: 15
Date: [Aug. 28, 1920]
Caption: none
Description: “D.C.” watches, shocked, as Petersburg walks away with Brownlow (carrying a $10,000 check). Petersburg says, “You’ve got to pay them a living wage, old man!”

#4-4

Original number: 59              
Date: [Aug. 25, 1928]       
Caption: none
Description: Herbert Hoover arrives in the District on his presidential campaign tour and says, “My! The old place looks good!” “D.C.” has greeted him with a sign reading “Welcome to your city.”

#4-5

Original number: 13
Date: [c. 1929]
Caption: none
Description: “D.C.” holds a notice stating, “Senator Bingham of Connecticut explains that he employed a tariff expert to sit in committee and make up for his lack of knowledge of tariff affairs.” “D.C.” comments, “Whoopee! Maybe they’ll yet allow me to sit in and advise ‘em on D.C. items.”

#4-6

Original number: 62
Date: [Oct. 3, 1938]
Caption: none
Description: “D.C.” deliberates whether to hand a settlement medal to an airplane representing the newly announced Washington Airport at Gravelly Point, or a dove representing the recently concluded Munich Peace Solution. He muses, “It’s hard to decide which landed first.”

#4-7

Original number: 8
Date: [c. 1940-1941]
Caption: none
Description: “D.C.” argues with West Virginia Senator Jennings Randolph over a 100 percent gas tax boost. “D.C.” says, “It smells like an oil trust!” and Randolph replies, “But I only handled it for Virginia—that is Virginia Jenckes, now a private citizen of Indiana!”

#4-8      

Original number: 66
Date: unknown
Caption: none
Description: “D.C.” tips his hat to George Norris, holding a sign reading “No more lame ducks thanks to Norris Amendment,” and states, “George, I take off my hat to you!”

#4-9

Original number: 68
Date: unknown
Caption: none
Description: A dejected “D.C.” sits on a step, reading a notice that Congress is delaying adjournment to do something for veterans.  “D.C.” sighs, “Must be grand to have friends like that!”

#4-10

Original number: 72
Date: unknown
Caption: none
Description: A hurt “D.C.” lies in the street, cradled by Randolph and Overton, after apparently being hit by a truck labeled “Defense Program,” which lumbers away. FDR appears on the scene with an ambulance, and “D.C.” says, “You’re just in time, Doctor.”

#4-11

Original number: 86              
Date: {March 1917} [This is incorrect]                                                                
Caption: Will it come to this?
Description: Many Congressmen fly to work at the Capitol Building using personal sets of wings strapped to their backs. They comment on how fun flying is and how it will affect their mileage allowances.

#4-12

Original number: 96              
Date: {1908?}
Caption: The President has been criticized for leaving the White House so frequently—the above suggestion may solve the problem
Description: High up in the clouds, the Berryman bear pilots a bi-wing plane attached to the White House, while the press and Wilkie’s fleet, also in planes, follow.

#4-13

Original number: 100
Date: unknown
Caption: none
Description: The Squash Center farmers comment on Bilbo winning the Mississippi primary election.

Series 5: Representation, 1929-1947

#5-1

Original number: 33?
Date: July 4, 1929
Caption: Independence Day 1929
Description: “D.C.” wants representation fireworks, but Uncle Sam hands him voteless sparklers, admonishing, “No, no! You must be satisfied with the silent fireworks!”

#5-2

Original number: 32                
Date: Dec. 16, 1930       
Caption: none
Description: “D.C.” holds a statement noting that 157 years after the Boston Tea Party, District citizens are still in the same boat as the colonists were back then. He points to boxes labeled “Taxation without Representation” and says, “Long since overtime to throw this overboard.”

#5-3

Original number: 11
Date: July 4, 1932
Caption: Independence Day 1932
Description: “D.C.” holds his voteless sparklers as citizens of states with less population loudly parade by with their suffrage skyrockets and representation fireworks.

#5-4

Original number: 4
Date: [Oct. 12, 1932]
Caption: Columbus Day, 1932
Description: Gesturing to “D.C.” imprisoned in stocks, Columbus asks Uncle Sam, “After 440 years, isn’t he old enough to vote?”

#5-5

Original number: 26
Date: [Nov. 8, 1932]
Caption: [The Forgotten Man]
Description: Uncle Sam reassures “D.C.” that he won’t be forgotten when it comes to taxes, defense, or law enforcement, but “D.C.” replies, “Yeah, but you forget me on election day.”        

#5-6

Original number: 33
Date: April 19, 1933
Caption: Paul Revere of 1933
Description: “D.C.” is dressed like Revere, riding a horse past Constitution Hall -- where the 42nd Congress of the Daughters of the American Revolution is meeting -- and shouting, “Join in the fight here against taxation without representation!”                      

#5-7

Original number: 25
Date: June 14, 1933
Caption: Flag Day 1933
Description: “D.C.” gazes at the flag and says, “A beautiful emblem and a joy to look upon—but it means taxation without representation to me!”                                                                         

#5-8

Original number: 20
Date: [Dec. 16, 1933]
Caption: none
Description: A old-fashioned figure representing “Young Democrats” incredulously inquires of “D.C.”: “You mean to tell me 160 years after the Boston Tea Party you’re still taxed but not represented!”    

#5-9

Original number: 34
Date: [Nov. 6, 1934]
Caption: This is Voter’s Day for Everyone But—!
Description: “D.C.” tries to cast a ballot but is turned away by Uncle Sam, who points him to chair labeled “1773 taxation without representation” and says, “You go way back and sit down!”

#5-10

Original number: 10
Date: [Dec. 16, 1934]
Caption: Anniversary of the Boston Tea Party
Description: [“D.C.” reads about women petitioning Congress in favor of District representation and comments, “If the women put on war paint district representation will come in a rush!”]                                           

#5-11

Original number: 27
Date: [Dec. 16, 1936]
Caption: 163rd Anniversary of the Boston Tea Party!
Description: “Congress” has tossed “D.C.” off the ship U.S. and into the ocean, instead of tea boxes labeled “taxation without representation.” “D.C.” complains, “Hey! It was the tea, not me, to go overboard!” 

#5-12

Original number: 3
Date: April 19, 1938
Caption: none
Description: Surrounded by news about new taxes, “D.C” looks at a painting of the beginning of the Revolutionary War and says, “That war was never won, if you ask me!”           

#5-13

Original number: none
Date: Dec. 16, 1938
Caption: 165th Anniversary of the Boston Tea Party!
Description: On the Good Ship Democracy, “D.C.” urges President Roosevelt to heave overboard a box labeled “Taxation without representation is poison to democracy.”                                        

#5-14

Original number: 6
Date: March 11, 1941
Caption: Wish he would let his left hand know what his right hand is doing
Description: A figure representing the House of Representatives signs the “Lend-Lease Bill to help preserve democracy” with one hand while his other hand is clubbing “D.C.” (who is holding a sign noting an “unfair income tax”) over the head.

#5-15

Original number: 7
Date: [c. 1941]
Caption: none
Description: “D.C.” is upset because the Sumners-Capper vote has been postponed again, but the ghost of Abraham Lincoln encourages him to “Keep up the fight—they can’t postpone your emancipation forever.”

#5-16

Original number: 2
Date: [Jan. 29, 1946]
Caption: none
Description: “D.C.” writes a letter to his son, a soldier stationed in occupied Germany, saying he must be proud to be “enforcing the right of all people to vote” but that “D.C.” misses him at home in the voteless District.                    

#5-17

Original number: 5
Date: May 18, 1947
Caption: A Study in Contrasts
Description: “D.C.” watches with his taxation without representation ball-and-chain while Uncle Sam welcomes newly naturalized citizens, who have full voting rights.             

#5-18

Original number: 12
Date: unknown
Caption: none
Description: “D.C.” is piloting a vehicle--named Votes for the District--carrying many prominent politicians, while Wilkie and others clamor to hop on as well. Uncle Sam comments, “Everybody’s talking about democracy and now someone seems to be doing something about it!”                                           

#5-19

Original number: 28
Date: unknown
Caption: Barred! [in pencil]
Description: “D.C.” cannot vote because the polling place is surrounded by a fence labeled “Keep out!”                                

#5-20

Original number: 29
Date: unknown
Caption: none
Description: “D.C.” is enthusiastically marching along, carrying the ball-and-chain burden of taxation without representation as well as a sign that reads “Vote November 5 in our own plebiscite.” Uncle Sam comments, “I wish all voters had this spirit!”

#5-21

Original number: 30
Date: unknown
Caption: Geographical Note: The Potomac River Isolates the American Capital from American Principles
Description: “D.C.” stands on the banks of the Potomac with his taxation without representation ball-and-chain and watches as the citizens of Arlington County, Va., rush to the polls.

#5-22

Original number: 31
Date: unknown
Caption: none
Description: “D.C.” holds an American flag and an oversized star labeled “D.C. National Representation” and comments regarding the flag, “That’s what it lacks!”

Series 6: Weather and Nature, 1915-1917

#6-1

Original number: 92
Date: March 31, 1915
Caption: none
Description: The March lion is onstage performing for “D.C.” and Uncle Sam, while the April lamb waits in the wings and says, “I’ll bet they’ll be glad to see my turn.”

#6-2

Original number: 84
Date: [Jan. 10, 1916]
Caption: The Good Citizens Medal
Description: “D.C.” pins a medal on the lapel of a man who has been sprinkling sawdust on the icy sidewalks.

#6-3

Original number: 73
Date: [March 22, 1917]
Caption: none
Description: “D.C.” greets a young girl representing Spring and pleads, “Now that you’re here, please stay.”

#6-4

Original number: 42
Date: [May 12, 1917]
Caption: The Steadfastness of Fickle May
Description: In strong winds, “D.C.” reads a weather bulletin calling for “little change in temperature.”

#6-5

Original number: 17           
Date: {1930s?}
Caption: none
Description: “D.C.” is menaced by a flock of starlings while carrying items representing various District problems. He says, “As if I didn’t have enough troubles!”

#6-6

Original number: 38
Date: unknown
Caption: The harder it blows the sooner its over
Description: Uncle Sam and “D.C.” hold onto their hats in gale force winds.

#6-7

Original number: 53
Date: {1920s}
Caption: No kick on this award [in pencil]
Description: “D.C.” pins a Distinguished Service medal on a man’s lapel because he shoveled the sidewalk and steps in front of his house.

#6-8

Original number: 61
Date: unknown
Caption: none
Description: A family sits on their porch in coats while the children read advertisement for cool summer getaways. The man says, “Mother, I don’t know that going away from here is necessary.”

#6-9

Original number: 71
Date: unknown
Caption: none
Description: Surrounded by snow, pulling a small express wagon, and holding a little shovel, “D.C.” exclaims, “And I’ve gotten so little help from the sun this winter!”                                             

#6-10

Original number: 75
Date: {1917-1918}
Caption: none
Description: “D.C.” hugs his furnace for warmth and says, “It might be worse: think of the folks in the war zone.”

#6-11

Original number: 82
Date: unknown
Caption: none
Description: A figure representing July, complete with baggage of heat, humidity, and drought, is being shooed out by “D.C.,” who yells, “I won’t even shake hands with you! Good riddance!”

#6-12

Original number: 83
Date: {1914-1917}
Caption: none
Description: Pointing with a fly swatter towards a pile of trash swarming with flies, “D.C.” announces, “Forward march! Now’s the time for a spring drive!”  He also carries a flag reading “Destroy the Fly.”

#6-13

Original number: 90
Date: {before 1910}
Caption: A Cry for Help
Description: As District citizens struggle through snow banks, “D.C.” faces the Capitol building and waves a flag that reads, “Requisition for snow cleaning funds.”

#6-14

Original number: 91
Date: {before 1910}
Caption: Only Signs of Spring [in pencil]
Description: Two children bundled up in winter clothing gaze at advertisements for spring and summer activities and products.

#6-15

Original number: 99
Date: {before 1910}
Caption: The First Day of Spring
Description: Sitting in a park, “D.C.” greets a young girl representing Spring and chides, “Remember, now, no flarebacks!”

#6-16

Original number: 100
Date: {before 1910}
Caption: Suburbanite’s Spring Fever Delirium [in pencil]
Description: A man peers over a fence into his neighbor’s garden and sees his neighbor with his gardening tools and seed, already surrounded by gigantic vegetables.

Series 7: World War I, 1917-1919

#7-1

Original number: 56
Date: [Feb. 16, 1917]
Caption: none
Description: “D.C.” goes to put sugar in his drink and is alarmed at the small amount left. A sign reads, “Sugar famine threatened in Washington; supply cut off!”

#7-2

Original number: 40
Date: [May 23, 1917]
Caption: none
Description: “D.C.” encourages citizens to buy a Liberty Bond, pointing to the total amount of the District’s share and stating, “Let’s take the other four millions quickly.”

#7-3

Original number: 49
Date: [June 13, 1917]
Caption: On the Second Round
Description: “D.C.” runs around a racetrack marked “D.C.’s Liberty Bond Allotment $8,500,000” while Uncle Sam and the Berryman bear cheer him on. Uncle Sam comments, “And still going strong!”

#7-4

Original number: 50
Date: [Nov. 1, 1917]
Caption: none
Description: “D.C.” points to announcements showing that participation in the second Liberty Loan campaign has greatly exceeded the total of the first campaign.

#7-5

Original number: 47
Date: [c. 1917]
Caption: An Annex Needed [in pencil]
Description: “D.C.” adds an extension to a chart tracking the amount of money raised in the Red Cross campaign drive, as the donations have caused the scale to go off the chart already.

#7-6

Original number: 43
Date: [c. 1919]
Caption: none
Description: A proud “D.C.” stands surrounded by flags proclaiming, “Welcome Home Heroes of Chateau Thierry and Belleau Wood.”
                                              
#7-7
Original number: 9
Date: {c. 1917-1918}
Caption: none
Description: “D.C.” holds money, while men run up to him holding war savings stamps.  He says, “Help yourselves.”             

Series 8: World War II, 1940-1945

#8-1

Original number: 18
Date: [Oct. 15, 1940]
Caption: none
Description: Uncle Sam holds the Selective Draft Law and tells “D.C.” that everyone should go to the voting places tomorrow to register for the draft. “D.C.” replies, “I haven’t any voting places but I’ll be there all the same.”

#8-2

Original number: 58                  
Date: Jan. 18, 1944             
Caption: none
Description: “D.C.” prepares to shoot the “4th war loan” apple off Morgenthau’s head and reassures him, “Don’t be nervous, Henry!  I’m good!”

#8-3a, b

Original number: 48a, b [two copies]
Date: Dec. 23, 1945         
Caption: No Vacant Chairs – If Conferences are to Succeed
Description: Bevin, Byrnes and Molotov sit at a conference table reading plans, while an empty chair marked with a cross is highlighted by a spotlight.

Series 9: Artwork, 1934-1948

Caricatures, n.d. [Double-sided sheets with a drawing on each side; 2 copies of each]

Stevenson, Thomas P. Syme, Conrad H.
Somerville, Thomas  Smith, Emmons S.
Spear, Ellis Simmons, B. Stanley
Story, J. P., Jr.  Stone, I. S. (Dr.)
Schwartz, E. P.  Sturtevant, C. L.
Swartzell, G. W. F. Stone, Charles P.
Smith, Thomas W. Spier, William E.
Smith, F. H. Stevens, F. C.

Christmas cards

  • 1935
  • 1942
  • 1943
  • 1945
  • 1946
  • 1948
  • Invitation to University Club dinner, 1934
  • Sketch of “Albert,” n.d.

[1] Some sources list place of birth as Clifton, Ky.

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December 2004

DC Public Library, Special Collections
D.C. Community Archives
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Washington, D.C.  20001
202-727-1213

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